LITERATURE REVIEW OF KASIS

 

  1. Dr. Bhupendra V. Nikam; 2. Dr. Anagha H. Pednekar; 3. Dr.Suvarna R.Dhimdhime.

(1 & 2. PG Scholar. Dept. of Rasashatra and Bhaishajjya kalpna. ADAMC, Ashta. Walwa, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. 3. Guide, Dept. of Rasashatra and Bhaishajjya kalpna. ADAMC, Ashta. Walwa, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.)

Abstract:-

Kasis is explained in the Ayurveda texts as an Uparasa. The main purpose of this article is to shed light on research and manufacturing process of kasis yoga. No historical background of kasis was available in ancient literature except for Brihatrai, Laghutrai and other Rasa granthas. Kasis is mentioned in the treatment of various diseases such as Skin diseases, ENT diseases, dental diseases, anemia and menstrual disorders. Ancient acharyas imparted various synonyms for kasis. Different acharyas have mentioned various type of classification of Kasis in various literatures according to origin and according to the colour of kasis. Then they briefly explained the artificial preparation of kasis in the literature. Rasa panchak explained in these literature varies from acharya to acharya. Shodhan process of kasis was explained in literature and also explained in which type of material was used for the shodhan process of kasis. Kasis marana, therapeutic indication, grahyagrahyatwa, Karma, dosage, anupana, kasis kalpa is explained in detail. Relevant literature of the Kasis in the modern science is also easily available. So kasis is best ingredient of choice in different preparation of medicine.

Introduction:-

Kasis is one of the ancient drugs which is the mentioned in many Ayurvedic literature such as Bhrihatri, Laghutrai and various Rasa shastra literature.

Kasis is also known as Ferus sulphate in chemistry. Kasis is a mineral containing iron, hence kasis bhasma is also beneficial in treating anemia and its associated splenomegaly. It is one of the important medicine to treat general debility. As it alleviates vata dosha, it is benevolent in cough as an expectorant. Kasis bhasma is useful in dysuria, and urinary calculi. It is promotes the menses. It alleviates the vesicular (shvitra). Also beneficial for eyes (netrya) and Danta rogas. It is also used as a coloring agent for dying the hair.

Some acharyas have mentioned kasis yogas but these yogas have not been proved scientifically, viz Kasisadi gutika for dental caries. Hence, details about Kasis and its properties is mentioned in this article, which could prove to be helpful for further work.

 

Etymology of Word Kasisa :

     Kasisa Kasr. Dhatu =    which enlightens the body (S.K.D.)  

                              This cures Kasa (S.M.Ni)  

                              Green Vitriol (Moniar William)

Historical Background: -

          No historical background is available about Kasisa in ancient (pre-samhita) text, but during Samhita time some descriptions can be seen. Charaka Samhita notes 14 kalpa of Kasisa. In Charak and Sushrut samhita Kasis is described under Bhauma Gana. They mentioned that Kasis was used only for external applications eg. Varti, Lepa and Taila.

 

Important Preparations of Kasis in CharakaSamhita

 

Sr.

Reference In Samhitas

Preparation

   Disease

1

Ch. Su. 3/5

Lepa

    Kushta

2

Ch. Su. 3/10

Lepa

    Kushta

3

Ch. Chi. 7/102

Lepa

    Kushta

4

Ch. Chi. 7/109

Lepa

    Kushta

5

Ch. Chi. 7/114

Lepa

    Kushta

6

Ch. Chi. 7/117

Lepa

    Kushta

7

Ch. Chi. 7/167

Lepa

    Kushta

8

Ch. Chi. 21/126

Lepa

   Visarpa

9

Ch. Chi. 25/115

Lepa

    Vrana

10

Ch. Chi. 25/117

Lepa

    Vrana

11

Ch. Chi. 26/154

DrishtiPradavarti

  NetraRoga

12

Ch. Chi. 26/271

MahanilaTaila

   Khalitya

13

Ch. Chi. 30/79

Yoni Varti

 Yonivyapada

14

Ch. Chi. 30/121

Yoni Varti

 Yonivyapada

 

Sushruta Samhita:

Near about 15 formulations about kasis has been explain in Sushrut samhita. In this kasis has been used both externally and internally.

 

Preparations of Kasis in Sushruta Samhita

Sr.

Reference

Preparation

    Disease

1

Su. Chi. 1/60

Rasa Kriya

     Vrana

2

Su. Chi. 1/96

Pralepa

  Pandukarma

3

Su. Chi. 1/97

Pralepa

  Pandukarma

4

Su. Chi. 1/103

Lepa

  Romasanjanana

5

Su. Chi. 18/54

Avachurnana

    Galaganda

6

Su. Chi. 19/40

Avachurnana

   Upadansha

7

Su. Chi. 20/21,22

Pratisarana

        Alasa

8

Su. Chi. 25/32

SaireyakadiTaila

   Kesharanjana

9

Su. Ut. 11/16

VartmaAnjana

     Praklinna

10

Su. Ut. 12/15

Anjana

     Sirotpata

11

Su. Ut. 12/18

Anjana

     Siraharsha

12

Su. Ut. 12/23

Anjana

         Arjuna

13

Su. Ut. 12/46

Anjana

      Puyalasa

14

Su. Ut. 17/43

Anjana

   KaphajaTimira

15

Su. Ut. 17/44

Anjana

   KaphajaTimira

 

Ashtanga Hridaya:

About 15 preparations about kasis has been explain in Ashtang Hridaya samhita. In this kasis has been used both externally and internally.

 

Formulation of Kasis in AshtangaHridaya

Sr.

Reference

Preparation

Disease

1

A. H. Chi. 16/56

Churna + Milk

Kumbha Kamala

2

A. H. Chi. 18/26

Lepa

  Visarpa

3

A. H. Chi. 19/67

Avachurnana

 TwakRoga

4

A. H. Chi. 19/71

Avachurnana

  Kustha

5

A. H. Chi. 19/73

Lepa

   Kilasa

6

A. H. Ut. 11/5

Anjana

   Puyalasa

7

A. H. Ut. 11/6

Pratisarana

 Krimigranthi

8

A. H. Ut. 16/40

Anjana

 NetraKandu

9

A. H. Ut. 16/55

Anjana

Pakshamashata

10

A. H. Ut. 22/51

Avachurnana

ApakvaTalupaka

11

A. H. Ut. 24/28

Lepa

  Indralupta

12

A. H. Ut. 25/40

Lepa

Vranavasadana

13

A. H. Ut. 34/15

Lepa

 Upadansha

14

A. H. Ut. 34/51

TailaPichu

Yonivyapada

15

A. H. Ut. 34/55

Churna

Yonivyapada

 

RasaratnaSamuchchaya:-

              This is the best book in the literature of Rasa shastra. This ancient book has two parts; one part contains 11 chapters and second has 18. In this book many contents is explained like Parada, Maharasa, Uparasa, Sadharana Rasa, Ratna, Uparatna, Lauha etc. Also explain shodhan, Marana, Satvapatana of Kasis in classically. Sources, varieties, properties of the drug.

 

Rasarnava (12th A. D.):

                Author of rasarnav is unknown. This literature form of communication between Parvati and Shiva. In this literature word ‘Adhyaya’ replace to the ‘Patal’. In this text the colour of Jwala of different Dhatu, Upadhatu, Rasa, Uparasa have been related. In this book 18 Patala is explained. It also explains the properties, purification and varieties of Kasis in a systemic manner.

 

BhavaPrakasha

In this ancient literature the properties and uses of Kasis are explained beautifully.

 

Rasatarangini

This is one of the best ancient and popular literatures in Rasashastra. Author has mentioned the synonyms, varieties, properties, Shodhana and Marana of Kasis properly.

In present more than 100 and more preparations about kasis are available. In ancient times, kasis was used as an ink for writing purpose.

 

Synonyms:

Sanskrit Synonyms with Meanings:

  1. Kasis: It increases body luster.

  2. Kasishaka: It increases body luster.

  3. Kesharam: It is water soluble.

  4. Kesharanjakam: It is used in hair dyeing.

  5. Kansaka:It is used in Kapahajavyadhis like Shvasa, Kasa etc.

  6. Ayogandhamla: It contains iron and sulphuric acid.

  7. PansuKasis: 14 mujab

  8. Panasuka: It is found in small granules. Also gained from the Mritika from the mine.

  9. Pitta Kusumam: It looks like yellowish flower in earth.

  10. PushpaKasis: It look like flowe.

  11. Nainausadham: It is used in eye disorders

  12. DantaRanjakam: It discolours the teeth.

  13. DhatuShekharam: Kasis is given first preference amongs the Preparation in the disease anemia

  14. Valukasisa: its colour and size found sandy.

  15. Chakshukam: It is useful in eye disorders.

  16. HiraKasis: Due to its greenish colour.

 

   

Synonyms

References

 

Ch

Su.

A.R.S

A.H.

R.K.D

R.R.S

B.P.

A.P.

R.T

R.A

Kasis

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

Kansakam

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

Kesharam

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

Kesharanjakam

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Kasisaka

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

Ayogandhmla

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

Panshukasisa

-

+

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

Panshukam

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Pitakusumam

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

Pushpakasisa

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

Nainausadham

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

Dantaranjakam

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

Dhatushekharam

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

Dhatukasisa

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

Valukasisa

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Chakshukam

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

Hirakasisa

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Vernacular names:

  • Scientific : Ferrous sulphate

  • English   : Green vitriol, ferrous sulphate   

  • Marathi & Konkani : Hira Kasa

  • Hindi & Sindhi  : Kasis  

  • Latin    : Ferri sulphos  

  • Sanskrit : Kasis

  • Arabi   : Jaje Afasar  

  • Punjabi & Kashmiri: Sangai Sabja  

  • Parsi   : Tritiyasaba

  • Bengali  : Hire Kasa  

  • Gujarati  : Hirakasi  

  • French  : Sulphate ferrent  

  • Tamil & Kannad :  Annabhedi

 

Classification of Kasis

Varga

Author

Uparasa

RatnaSamuchchaya Rasendra Sara Sangraha Rasarnava, Rasa Chintamani, Ayurved Prakash ,Rasopanishada,Rasa Chudamani, Rasa HridayaTantra.

DhatuVarga

(LauhaVarga)

Rasamrit

Upadhatu

Sharangadhara Samhita, Rasa Tarangini, Rasa Dhatu Prakasha

 

Sources of Kasis:

Nowadays, Kasis is prepared by reacting sulphuric acid on big iron pieces. Ancient times Kasis is obtained in natural form and is also prepared artificially.

Natural Sources of Kasis:

In India Kasis is obtained from Orissa Bihar, Uttarpradesh, Kashmir, Panjab, Baluchistan and out of country also found in Spain Germany, USA, and Sweden. Natural kasis is obtained from decomposition of iron sulphide.

Chemical formula: FeSO4 7H2O

Types of Kasis

        Totally we get two, three and four types Kasis which are based on its origin and color.

Types of Kasis According to Origin

Reference

 

Kasis

ValuKKasis

Pushpa

Kasis

Churna

Kasis

Dhatu

Kasis

Panshu

Kasis

Hira

Kasis

R.R.S.

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

R.C.

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

R.T.

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

A.P.

+

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Types of Kasis According To Colour

Reference

R. V.

R.A

B.R.R.S.

A. K.

Pita Kasis

+

-

+

+

KrishanaKasis

+

-

+

+

HaritaKasis

-

+

-

-

RaktaKasis

-

-

-

+

 

Artificial Preparation of Kasis (R. T. 21/239):

          Pure iron powder is taken in a glass container and diluted sulphuric acid is added dropwise until the iron powder gets completely dissolved.                       When sulphuric acid is added, iron powder becomes hot and froth is formed in the liquid. When froth stops then the solution is filtered through filter paper. Fluid part is collected carefully and same part of pure alcohol is added to that, so that precipitation takes place and Kasis gets settled at bottom. Superior fluid is separated and settled Kasis at the bottom is collected and dried under sunlight. After drying Kasis becomes green colored and crystalline.

 

Grahyagrahyata:

Grahya Kasis is yellowish colored having bluish tinge and lustrous. The PuspaKasisa variety is used for medicinal purpose. In Rasamrita Yadavaji have described that among the two varieties artificially prepared and natural from Kasisa, artificially prepared Kasisa is therapeutically useful.

RASAPANCHAKA OF KASISA:-

Rasa

R.R.S.

R.T.

A.P.

R.K.D.

R.J.N.

Kshara

+

-

-

-

-

Amla

+

-

+

+

+

Tikta

-

-

+

-

-

Kasaya

+

-

-

-

-

Guna

Snigdh

-

-

-

-

+

Ushana

+

+

-

-

+

Virya

Sheeta

+

-

-

-

+

Ushana

-

-

-

-

-

Vipak

Madhur

-

-

-

+

-

Katu

+

-

-

-

-

 

Kasis Shodhan Vidhi

ShodhanaDravya

Procedure

Yantra

Reference

Bhringaraja Swarasa

Klinna

Khalva

R.R.S.; R.J.N.

 

Bhavana

Khalva

R.A

 

Swedana

DolaYantra

R.T.

Nimbu Swarasa

Bhavana

Khalva

R.S.; B.R.R.S.; R.J.N.

Jambiri Swarasa

Bhavana

Khalva

B.R.R.S.; R.P.

Pancha Pitta

(Varaha, Chaga, Mahisa,

Mayura, Matsya

Nimajjana

or Bhavana

Khalva

R.R, R.K.D., B.R.R.S.

Stri Shonita

Klinna

Khalva

R.R.S.;R.P.S.; B.R.R.S.; R.J.N.

Kasamarda Swarasa

Bhavana

Khalva

R.K.D.

Rajakoshataki

Bhavana

Khalva

R.K.D.

 

  • Kasis Marana

Marana procedure is used to prepare bhasmas from rasoushadhi.

  1. Red colored bhasma is obtained by laghuput after 7 bhawana of kanji to shuddha kasis. Then bhawana of nimbu swaras is given, dried and laghuput is given, this is repeated continuously till amlata of bhasma goes off

Ref - (Rasatarangini).

  1. Same as above, bhawana of snuhipatra swarasa is given instead of nimbu swarasa (Rasatarangini).

  2. By these procedures we get very pure & best quality kasis bhasma.

Karma:

         RaktaSanjanana, Krimighna, Rajah Pravartaka, Vranaghna, Pleehaghna, Kesaranjana, Mutrakrcchrhara, Shvitraghna, Kusthaghna.

Therapeutic indications:

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                                  UxÉiÉUÇ.21/231-233

 

Dose of Kasis:

65 mg - 250 mg Rasatarangini

125 mg - 250 mg Rasamrita

125 mg - 375 mg Rasatantra Sara

Matra:½ - 2 ratti.

Anupana:

       Vatajanya vyadhi -TriphalaChurna

           Pittajanya Vyadhi -Sharkara

           Kaphajanya Vyadhi -Madhu

 

Kasis yoga:

Kasisadi Gutika, Kasisadi taila, Loh rasayan, Rajahpravartini vati, Shwitrari rasayan.

 

FERROUS SULPHATE:

Description:

         Chemical formula of Kasis is FeSO4, 7H2O and atomic weight is 278.0. It is odourless and pale green crystalline powder, containing about 60 mg of Iron in 300 mg. It is efflorescent in dry air. On exposure to moist air it is oxidised and becomes brown in color due to the formation of basic ferric sulphate. It should be stored in airtight containers.

Chemical composition – Natural kasis contains Zinc , Copper Magnesium and Manganese in small quantity. Generally FeO 25.9%, SO3 29.8% and H2O 63% are present.

 

Solubility:

It is completely soluble 1 in 1.5 ml of water, 1 in 0.5 of boiling water. Practically insoluble in alcohol.

According to British Pharmacopeia specifies that a 5% solution in water has a pH of 3.0 to 4.0.

Uses:

(1) It is mainly used in Iron deficiency anemia.

(2) It has been used as hemostatic.