Concept of Pathya kalpana in Ayurvedic Diet

 

Anagha Pednaekar, Bhupendra Nikam, Suvarna Dhimdhime

  1. 3rd year P.G. Scholar, Dept of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, ADMCA, Ashta Sangali

  2. 3rd year P.G. Scholar, Dept of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, ADMCA, Ashta Sangali

  3. Head of the Department, Dept of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, ADMCA, Ashta Sangali

 

Abstract:

Ayurveda is branch of medicine which not only deals with cure of diseases also with the lifestyle management. Bhaishajya kalpana is the branch of Ayurveda which primarily deals with the different kinds of dosage forms and their therapeutic utility. Among the large number of formulations specified by Acharyas, the Panchavidha Kashaya kalpanas have great importance as they form the primary or basic dosage forms from which other secondary dosage forms are prepared.

 

Also as Ayurveda is science of life-style management a good and proper diet in disease is worth a hundred medicines. So Acharyas have introduced Pathya kalpana which can be consume by diseased or healthy human being. Ayurvediya classification of food is merely based on the biological action of food article and their Rasa. The dietic or therapeutic properties of a large number of articles of human consumption, as well as the chemical changes they undergo in digestive apparatus have been studied and analyzed and so find in our Samhitas

 

Introduction:

 

Ayurveda is only life science which had insisted more on prevention of disease & maintenance of health rather than treating any disease. Ayurveda is a science based on prevention of disease it focus on life style management through Dinacharya and

 

Ritucharya. It is divided in Ahar drava & Aushadha dravya, More focus is on Ahariya dravya because that is what we consume daily. Each and every detail about ingredients, Preparation methods there properties are carefully mentioned. The precisely constituted, calculated and cooked food is known as Pathya. By Acharya Kashyapa it is called as Mahabhaishajya.

 

 

Definition:

The word Pathya derives its origin from root word Patha which literally means a way or channel. In Shabdakalpadrumam it is said that pathya is beneficial for patients while apathya harms them. The food characteristics and properties will change according to season, place and person hence pathya also changes accordingly. Pathya not only advocates intake of wholesome food but also it directs to follow a certain regimen to fasten the process of recovery from the diseased state. In Charaka Samhita while explaining about Chikitsa, Charaka has used Pathya as a synonym for the chikitsa.

 

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Need of Pathya kalpana:

Ayurveda prescribes specific diet patterns in the diseased condition or to lead healthy life which are known as Pathya. According to sidhanta of Ayurveda, derangement of the digestive power (Agni) occurs in many diseases which is the prime reason for the formation of vitiated dosha, Ama (toxic substances) and malformation of Dhatus (body tissues). Hence it is important to restore normalcy of the digestive power. This objective can be attained by using a properly managed diet regimen according to condition of doshas and type of the disease.

Approach to Pathya kalpana and Modern dietetics:

In Ayurveda Ingredients of specific preparation, their indication and contraindication are mentioned on basis of which Pathya is prescribed to patient. Agni the digestive capacity of patient and properties of food is taken into consideration. Where as in modern dietetics food is categorized into Protein, Carbohydrate and fat and total calorie quotient is taken into consideration. But ability to digest changes from person to person and disease to disease. Also age, place, habitat, status of person are taken onto consideration so Ayurvedic physician advise pathya which is comprises of six taste thus balancing the Panchabhautika constituent of body.

Also in Ayurveda there is far more importance of Samskara;

 

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Raw food material is converted into different for by using different samskaras which changes their physical and chemical properties. Mostly modern dietetics focuses on nature of food (Dravya); whereas Ayurveda consider both Dravya and Agni (Digestive power).

 

Classification as per Ayurveda

  • Shooka Dhanya
  • Shimbi Dhanya
  • Shaka
  • Mamsa
  • Phala
  • Harita
  • Jala
  • Ikshuvarga
  • Gorasa
  • Madya
  • Krutanna Varga
  • Aharyogi

 

Pathya kalpana:

  1. Acharya Sharangdhara explains about some pathya kalpana like manda, peya, vilepi, yavagu etc. These kalpanas are generally used in different diseases according to state of disease and capacity to digest the food in that disease. It also helps to maintain proper Agni (digestive fire) so as to digest food properly and give needed nutrition to tissues of body. It will also help to avoid formation of Ama which is often triggered when Agni (digestive fire) becomes low.

 

Name of kalpana  Ratio of Rice  Ratio of Water Characteristic Final constitution
Manda 1 part  14 parts Till rice is completely cooked  Only Supernatant liquid
Peya 1 part  14 part  Till rice completely cooked Rice and liquid portion taken in equal proportion
Vilepi 1 part 4 parts Till rice is completely cooked  Maximum solid portion with little liquid is taken 
Yavagu 1 Part 6 parts  Till rice is completely cooked Only rice part

 

 

Manda Kalpana:

  • Prepared by using rice and water in 1:14 proportion. Manda is watery portion of completely cooked rice.

  • It is Laghu, Sheeta, Deepan, Pachan, Grahi Vatanulomaka and kaphaghna.

  • Eg. Laja manda

 

Peya Kalpana:

  • It is prepared by 1:14 rice and water proportion; Watery portion and few grains of cooked rice.

  • It is Laghu, Deepana, Pachana, Vatanulomaka and Dhatupushtikara.

 

Vilepi kalpana:

  • Rice is cooked with 4 parts of water.

  • It is madhura, Laghu, Deepana, Rochana, Vrushya. Yavagu kalpana:

  • Prepared with 6 parts of water and 1 part of rice.

  • There are two types’ kwath siddha yavagu and Mamsara siddha yavagu.

2.  Yusha:

Yusha kalpana is prepared by Shimbi dhyanya like moong, masura, udid etc.

  • 1 part of shimbi dhanya, half part of pimpli and shunthi, 16 parts of water are used for preparation of yusha.

  • Yusha is rochana, sandhankari, kaphapittahar.

 

3.  Krushara:

  • It is prepared by combination of rice and mudga.

 

  • It is Shukrala, balya, gur, pitta vardhaka, Kaphakara, vatanashaka.

 

Discussion:

In today’s era pathya kalpana should be practically practice because it is most important and basic concept of Ayurveda. Different types of samskara are very useful for health. These preparations are made up of easily available ingredients, easy to prepare and methods are cost effective and much healthier. Ayurvedic pathya kalpana changes as per individual be it healthy or diseased. According to Desh, Kala, Bala and prakriti diet is prescribed.

Pathya kalpana should be included as diet plan. As Agni of patient is also taken into consideration. It helps to stay fit, in patients it helps to keep as srotasa and dosha in normal range.

 

Conclusion:

Pathya kalpana helps in both healthy as well as diseased state. It makes food healthy. Digestive capacity of patient is equal important. Ahariya dravyas can be used for treatment. It provides all nutritive values as food is sadarasa yukta. So pathya kalpana should be included in diet regime of patient.
 

References:

  1. Charak Samhita (Poorvardha), Acharya Ravidutta Tripathi edition 2006, Choukhambha Sanskrit Publication, Delhi.

  2. Sharangdhar Samhita Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi edition 2013, Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi.

  3. Chakradutta, Dr. Indradev Tripathi edition 2011, ISBN 81-86937-87-0, Choukhambha Sanskrit Publication, Varanasi.

  4. Ashtanga Hridaya, Dr. Anna Kunte, K. R. Shastri, 1st editionReprint, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, 2010.

  5. Ashtang Hridaya, Dr. Lal Chandra Shastri, Trivedi, 1st editionReprint, Shree Baidyanatha Ayurveda Bhavan PVT LTD, Nagapur.

  6. Bhavprakash Nighantu, Dr. K.C. Chunekar, Dr. G.S. Pandey, 1st edition reprint 2009, Chaukhamba Bharti Academy, Varanasi.

  7. Yogaratnakar, Vaidya. Shrilaxmipatishastri Ayurvedacharya Reprinted Chaukhamba Prakashan, Varanasi.

  8. Bhaishajya Kalpana Vigyana, Acharya P. V. Sharma, Reprint,Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashana, Varanasi, 2006

  9. Bhaishajya Kalpana Vigyanam by Dr. K. R. C. Reddy, 2nd edition,Chaukhamba Prakashan, Varanasi, reprints 2008.